1) Use a comma to separate items on a list. This always reminds me of a memory game I used to play with my kids on long car journeys:
I went to the shops and I bought an apple, a banana, a cherry and six bars of chocolate.
Be careful to avoid confusion here though:
I went to the shops and bought my favourite sandwiches – hummus, sardine and cheese and tomato.
Now, are we suggesting here that I eat sandwiches with all these fillings? Or that I like hummus sandwiches, and sandwiches that contain sardines AND cheese AND tomato. Or sardine and cheese. Or just cheese and tomato? Commas can clear this up:
I went to the shops and bought my favourite sandwiches – hummus, sardine, and cheese and tomato.
2) Use a comma to separate a series of actions, events or elements in a sentence:
She opened the…
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